In modern times each organization seeks to improve profitability and achieve stability, establish a style of personnel management, streamline relationships in the team, determine the relationship of employees to work their satisfaction with it. Such a tool is a corporate culture.
Organizational culture is «a set of the most important provisions established by the members of the organization and reflected in the values declared by the organization, telling people the rules of their behavior and actions.» This includes: experience, skills, traditions, communication and decision-making processes, myths, fears, hopes, aspirations and expectations, really experienced by collaborators .
«Under the culture of the organization we understand the objective possibility of norms, values, beliefs, patterns of behavior that help to determine the order of uniting groups and individuals in the enterprise to achieve the desired result» .
- Materials and Methods
The organizational culture of the company is formed not only by factors of the external environment. In most cases, it develops within an organization in which the values and conduct of managers are improved. In this case, corporate culture is expressed as a union of norms, rules, customs and traditions, supported by the subject of organizational power and establish a unified framework for employee behavior consistent with the firm’s strategy. In consequence, we can say that the organizational culture of the firm has a predominantly artificial nature, being a consequence of a purposeful management influence. Thus, the most important is the conjuncture that shared values can be developed in a natural way. In this case, it is entirely permissible that their indicator may not coincide with the goals of the organization.
Modern scientists view culture as a strong strategic tool that allows all sections and individuals to be directed to common goals, to attract the initiative of employees to establish effective interaction .
According to numerous authors, organizational culture is expressed not so much by the internal characteristics of the enterprise itself as by the socio-cultural characteristics of the organization, the company’s human potential, and the principles and beliefs of top management.
The most important feature determining the role of external and internal factors in the course of creating an organizational culture of an enterprise is its size. The larger the organization, the more influenced by its organizational culture external factors (Figure 1). The culture of such an enterprise is sociological and socio-economic in nature. The organizational culture of a small or medium-sized enterprise, on the contrary, is expressed by internal factors and has a socio-psychological nature.
Figure 1 — Factors which is affecting the formation of the corporate culture of the organization
The famous scientist E. Shane distinguishes the following levels of organizational culture :
- the level of objects, including all that can be seen, heard and felt when joining a new group;
- the level of advantages that includes the strategies, goals, philosophy of the enterprise — as well as all that is the subject of targeted development;
- the level of basic representations, which include subconscious thoughts and feelings, features of perception (the primary source of values and actions).
JK Lafta also believes that the organizational culture consists of three components. The first component is a complex composition of important considerations (often not amenable to formulation), unacceptably accepted and shared by team members.
Values in his opinion are the second component, which includes the definition of a corporate culture.
The third general category, the concept of organizational culture, reveals the «symbolism» by which value orientations are reproduced by the workers of the organization. Many organizations have documents designed for all in which they detail their corporate values. As G. Lafta himself emphasizes, corporate values are widely reflected by workers through «walking» myths that exert a significant influence on people than the values indicated in the organization’s advertising publication .
- Results and Discussion
There are many approaches to presenting the content side of a diverse organizational culture. So, for example, O. Rodin singles out an objective and subjective organizational culture.
Objective organizational culture can be perceived by the researcher visually, for which it is enough to come to the organization.
The subjective organizational culture is complex for the perception of a third-party researcher and includes the following characteristics:
- ethical standards;
- leaders of the company;
- history of the company.
The emergence of attributes of organizational culture occurs when conditions are provided for the justified work of employees, which should result in satisfaction of employees with the content and working conditions, relations in the team, pay, and the social and psychological atmosphere in the team .
The term motivation occupies a special place in organizational culture. According to many domestic researchers, dissatisfaction with wages always remains an acute social problem in Russia. Of great importance to date are the internal driving forces that motivate people to work, to participate in the creation of management systems that allow them to reveal themselves to these forces.
It should be noted that one of the main functions of the organizational culture is the adaptation of new employees. Adaptation of the employee in the organization is so successful, how quickly he can «join» in his job duties and in the team.
The role of organizational culture is that the interests of staff and consumers are as important as the interests of managers .
In the solidarity of the company, an important function is assigned to traditions, their common feature is to fill people’s lives with the sense of familiarizing themselves with the whole: the working group, the profession, and society. They are needed because the organization also embodies its values in action. Along with this, we consider it necessary to pay special attention to the experience of the evolution of corporate values obtained in the history of Russian life.
In conclusion, we can note that the organizational culture of an enterprise is very often formed spontaneously, and therefore a number of values laid in its basis are in contradiction with the stated organizational goals and has a negative impact on the definition of motivation for work.
For modern organizations — a high organizational culture is a strong strategic attribute, allowing to correctly use human potential and correctly invest in it.
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