Индекс УДК 338
Дата публикации: 31.08.2018

The question of the development of optimal logistic schemes of transportation

Zernova Liudmila, Rahmanova Sevara
1. Candidate of economic Sciences, associate Professor, Department of Industrial management, Russian State University named after A. N. Kosygin
2. Student of economic department, Russian State University named after A. N. Kosygin
Abstract: In modern conditions of development of market economy transportation logistics plays a very important role. One of directions of activity of any enterprise involves the development of optimal logistic schemes of various transportations in the international and domestic transportation of any complexity. The article presents the rationale for the choice of various options of cargo delivery
Keywords: logistics, delivery, decision making, optimal route


In modern conditions of development of market economy transportation logistics plays a very important role, because every company interacts with other market actors in the field of movement of goods: raw materials from suppliers to the manufacturer of finished goods from producer to intermediaries and then to final consumers. There is a need to ensure the physical movement of such goods in the space on the optimal route with the lowest cost. This is the focus of transport logistics. The choice of specific logistics firms are often determined by advertising, as a means of promoting of the services [1,p. 50].

One of directions of activity of any enterprise involves the development of optimal logistic schemes of various transportations in the international and domestic transportation of any complexity [2, p. 102].

Consider one of the most significant projects of the logistics company involved in the organization of deliveries of motor vehicles and parts and accessories to it. Motorcycles and parts and accessories are made in Japan. The main shops of the dealers in the Russian mission are located in Moscow and Moscow region. The manufacturer enters into contracts and pays for transportation services to transit warehouse in Finland (transit warehouse for transshipping of motor vehicles in Russia is located in Kotka, Finland). Distributor delivers the goods from a transit warehouse in Finland, carries out customs clearance of goods, and subsequently ships the goods to dealers in Moscow and regions of Russia. Cargo follows from Kotka to Moscow on CIP Moscow, through the border crossing Torfyanovka. Organizing delivery of vehicles to the final consumer is carried out by dealers.

In the analyzed option we need to transport cargo weighing 40 tons and a volume of 166 m3 from the port of Kotka (Finland) to the Central warehouse in Moscow. In table 1 and figure 1 we show the possible routes of delivery, received by results of research activities of a number of major forwarding and logistics companies in Moscow.

However, note that for routes 2 and 4 vehicles used in the delivery of the goods at the temporary storage warehouse to the Central warehouse in Moscow. Further, it is necessary to perform the delivery routes taking into account the additional non-transport components, and then build the network graph that represents alternative ways of delivery. Based on the graph, we can optimize the route of delivery, while receiving the lowest cost.

Table 1

Brief description of the delivery options

 Route numbers

 

CharacteristicTypes of transport
 1Kotka – Moscow Road transport
 2Kotka – MoscowRailway transport + Road transport
 3Through the port of Saint-PetersburgSea transport + Road transport
 4Through the port of Saint-PetersburgSea transport  + Railway transport + Road transport

Analyzing delivery routes we are taking into account the additional non-transport components, and then you can build a network diagram representing an alternative delivery path (Fig. 2).

The number of combinations of delivery determines the number of values of the parameters, therefore, in this case twelve of them. The data describing the work to be included in the network and the cost for each of them are presented in table 2.

The time and cost for each delivery scheme determined as the sum of the corresponding values. Thus, the values of the parameters for each delivery option defined as follows:

Option 1:

Т = 1+1+4+4+0,5 = 10,5 days

С = 105+116+872+87+29 = 1209 Euro

where  T – time;

С – cost

Option  2:

Т = 1+1+4+1,5+0,5 = 8 days

С = 105+116+872+174+29 = 1296  Euro

Table 2

Works on delivery of cargoes in the direction of Kotka – Moscow

No. workDescription of workCost, Euro

 

Time, days
 1 2 3 4 5
 1 2Braking of freight in Kotka 105 1
 2 3Paperwork and loading on the truck 116 1
 2 4Paperwork and loaded on the railroad293
 2 5Paperwork and loading on a vessel in the port of Kotka1452
 5 6Shipping by maritime transport to the port of Saint – Petersburg3492
 6 7Unloading at the port of Saint — Petersburg641
7 8The release of the container from the port of Saint – Petersburg on their own customs guarantee293
 7 9The release of the container from the port of Saint – Petersburg by transport agent1741

Continuation of table 2

710The release of the container from the port of Saint – Petersburg under the guarantee of a customs carrier2
 711Release of cargo from the port of Saint – Petersburg on the railway294
 812Delivery by road transport to Moscow (temporary storage)3781,5
 912
1012 Delivery customs carrier road transport to Moscow (temporary storage)4941,5
1112The delivery of the railway from the port of Saint-Petersburg to Moscow (temporary storage)2264
 312Shipping by road from Kotka to Moscow (temporary storage)8724
 412The delivery of the railway from Kotka to Moscow (temporary storage)3837
1213Customs clearance in Moscow by own strength,874
1214Customs clearance in Moscow by customs brokers1741,5
1315Delivery in Moscow by motor transport from temporary storage to the terminal of the consignee290,5
1415

 

Option 3:

Т = 1+3+7+4+0,5 = 15,5 days

С = 105+29+383+87+29 = 633 Euro

Option 4:

Т = 1+3+7+1,5+0,5 = 13 days

С = 105+29+383+174+29 = 720 Euro

Option 5:

Т = 1+2+2+1+3+1,5+4+0,5 = 15 days

С = 105+145+349+64+29+378+87+29 = 1186 Euro

Option 6:

Т = 1+2+2+1+3+1,5+1,5+0,5 = 12,5 days

С = 105+145+349+64+29+378+174+29 = 1273 Euro

Option 7:

Т = 1+2+2+1+1+1,5+4+0,5 = 13 days

С = 105+145+349+64+174+378+87+29 = 1331 Euro

Option 8:

Т = 1+2+2+1+1+1,5+1,5+0,5 = 10,5 days

С = 105+145+349+64+174+378+174+29 = 1418 Euro

Option 9:

Т = 1+2+2+1+2+1,5+4+0,5 = 14 days

С = 105+145+349+64+0+494+87+29 = 1273 Euro

Option 10:

Т = 1+2+2+1+2+1,5+1,5+0,5 = 11,5 days

С = 105+145+349+64+0+494+174+29 = 1360 Euro

Option 11:

Т = 1+2+2+1+4+4+4+0,5 = 18,5 days

С = 105+145+349+64+29+226+87+29 = 1034 Euro

Option 12:

Т = 1+2+2+1+4+4+1,5+0,5 = 16 days

С = 105+145+349+64+29+226+174+29 = 1121 Euro

The values of calculated parameters are presented in table 3.

Table 3

The results of calculation of parameters for various delivery schemes

Route

number

 Delivery schemeTime Т,      daysCost С, Euro

 

 1 (1)1, 2, 3, 12, 13, 15 10,5 1209
 1 (2)1, 2, 3, 12, 14, 15  8 1296
 2 (3)1, 2, 4, 12, 13, 15 15,5 633
 2 (4)1, 2, 4, 12, 14, 15 13 720
 3 (5)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 15 15 1186
 3 (6)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15 12,5 1273
 3 (7) 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 ,9 ,12, 13, 15 13 1331
 3 (8)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 14, 15 10,5 1418
 3 (9)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 15 14 1273
 3 (10)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15 11,5 1360
 4 (11)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 15 18,5 1034
 4 (12)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 14, 15 16 1121

 

Analysis of calculation results shows that in transportation the preferred delivery route will be:

  • the «time» parameter: motor transport, the customs operation in Moscow using a customs broker;
  • the «cost» parameter: rail transport, customs operations in Moscow on their own.

Thus, in order to determine which of the two options is the most optimal, we use the criteria of decision making under uncertainty (the importance of delivery options are approximately equal; neither delivery schemes does not reflect the minimum values of both parameters simultaneously).

To obtain comparable results, the parameters are given in relative form, where elements of each column divided by its minimum value (table 4).

Table 4

The relative values of parameters

Route number 

Delivery scheme

The relative values of parameters
 Т С
 1 2 3 4
 1 (1)1, 2, 3, 12, 13, 151,31251,9099
 1 (2)1, 2, 3, 12, 14, 151,00002,0474
2 (3)1, 2, 4, 12, 13, 151,93751,0000
2 (4)1, 2, 4, 12, 14, 151,62501,1374
3 (5)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 151,87501,8736
3 (6)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 14, 151,56252,0111
3 (7)1, 2, 5, 6, 7 ,9 ,12, 13, 151,62502,1027
3 (8)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 14, 15 1,3125 2,2401
3 (9)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 15 1,7500 2,0111
3 (10)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15 1,4375 2,1485
4 (11)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, 15 2,3125 1,6335
4 (12)1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12, 14, 15 2,0000 1,7710

For the considered parameters values of the unknown criteria were determined.  The calculation results for all criteria are shown in table 5.

Table 5

The choice of the scheme of delivery according to the criteria of the decision

Number of  route, jThe criterion of LaplaceThe Wald criterionCriterion SavageThe Hurwitz Criterion
1(1) 1,0740 1,9099 0,9099 1,6112
1(2) 1,0157 2,0474 1,0474 1,5237
2(3) 0,9791 1,9375 0,9375 1,4688
2(4) 0,9207 1,6250 0,6250 1,3812
3(5) 1,2494 1,8750 0,8750 1,8743
3(6) 1,1911 2,0111 1,0111 1,7868
3(7) 1,2424 2,1027 1,1027 1,8639
3(8) 1,1841 2,2401 1,2401 1,7763
3(9) 1,2536 2,0111 1,0111 1,8806
3(10) 1,1952 2,1485 1,1485 1,7930
4(11) 1,3152 2,3125 1,3125 1,9730
4(12) 1,2569 2,0000 1 1,8855
The minimum value 0,9207 1,6250 0,6250 1,3812

According to the analysis of the obtained results it is proposed to choose the fourth option on the second route, i.e. to use direct railway delivery with the involvement of a customs broker for the customs clearance of cargo in Moscow.

Библиографический список

1. Zernova L. E., Sheina E. G. Advertising as a means of promoting the services of logistics companies. Collection of articles of International scientific-practical conference "World of science and innovation" - 2016. – pp. 50-52.
2. Zernova L. E., Radjabov Z. BUSINESS ACTIVITY OF CORPORATIONS AS A FACTOR OF GROWTH OF EFFICIENCY. Collection of articles of International scientific-practical conference "Fundamental problems of science"- 2016. - pp. 101-103.